Specification of LED Flashlights

Light Output

For flashlight specifications, light output is determined by the total amount of light coming from the front of the flashlight. It relates to the LED's efficiency and how much power it uses.

Lumens For Flashlight

The lumen rating indicates how bright a light source will seem to the human eye.

More specifically, lumens measure the amount of light distributed in a particular area. When we talk about "brightness," we refer to light intensity. This means that two flashlights with the same lumen output can appear to have different brightness levels depending on how the light is distributed.

For example, a flashlight with a narrow beam will appear brighter than a diffused beam because the light is more concentrated in a smaller area.

To give you an idea, the different flashlights with different lumens as below:

  • Extremely bright light, 1500+ lumens
  • High output: 1000-1500 lumens
  • Mid-range torch light output: 300-1000 lumens
  • General-purpose led torch output: 20-300 lumens
flood beam flashlight output for night walking
flashlight beam intensity

Beam Intensity

Beam intensity defines the strength of the beam during exposure to a specific area. The factors that affect beam intensity are beam quality (kVp), beam quantity (mAs), and the separation between the exposed region and the x-ray tube.

The peak beam intensity, candela, is how bright the human eye perceives the beam. It is determined by the optical system (lens, reflector, etc.) that focuses the beam. Our perception of brightness is non-linear. This means that for a light to appear twice as bright, Its beam must have four times the other light's intensity.

>25,000 candela
The typical intensity of a tightly focused LED flashlight or spotlight.

2,000-25,000 candela
The typical intensity of an LED flashlight.

<2,000 candela
The typical intensity of an LED work light.

Flashlight Beam Pattern

The best beam pattern depends on the intended use of the flashlight. A wide beam with low intensity is a good choice if you need a light for general household use. But a more focused beam with higher intensity would be a better option if you need a light for outdoor activities.


A spotlight beam is very concentrated and can reach distances of up to 1000 feet, making it ideal for search and rescue operations.

A flood beam is widely dispersed and can illuminate an area of up to 50 feet. This makes it ideal for camping and other outdoor activities.

>100 cd/lm
Spot beams generated by smooth reflectors or total internal reflection (TIR) optics are designed for outdoor usage and long-distance viewing.

15-100 cd/lm
Hybrid smooth/textured reflectors, shallow smooth reflectors, orange-peel textured reflectors, or TIR optics diffuse light into a broader hot spot.

<15 cd/lm
Shallow reflectors generate a broad beam of light, commonly seen on work lights and best suited for indoor and general household use.

Adjustable Focus
Reflectors or optics can be adjusted to produce a variable spot to flood focus, but this usually results in artifacts such as rings or holes in the beam.

flashlight beam pattern - spot beam
flashlight multi-mode output

Output Modes

LEDs are well-known for their energy efficiency but offer several other advantages over traditional light sources.

One of the most versatile features of LEDs is that they can be electronically controlled for different brightness levels or output patterns. Typical modes include maximum output, reduced output, strobe, or SOS.

This makes LEDs ideal for various applications, from emergency lighting to everyday carry torches.

Single Output
Simply and quickly, just one click to turn on and off.

Many brightness levels are accessible by making a series of clicks.

Programmable Function Sets
You may also customize the mode sequence and turn on/off modes.


The capacity of a battery determines the runtime of the torch light. The power of a battery is measured in milliamp hours (mAh). A higher capacity battery will run longer than a lower capacity battery.

In addition, the efficiency of the power-saving designs used in the flashlight and the power consumption also affect runtime. Devices with more efficient power-saving methods and lower power consumption will tend to have longer runtimes than those without these features. For example:

Tests: 3 x AAA, low mode, 10 lumens, 75 hours
Big led torches might accommodate larger batteries, extending their operation time.

Tests: 18650 Li-ion 3000mAh, high mode, 1100 lumens, 1h 45min
Tactical and rechargeable flashlights have an average runtime of 1-25 hours. Utilizing step-down modes to enhance runtime.

Tests: Li-on 2500 mah, 2 pcs, extremely bright, 2000 lumens, 1h
The high-power searchlights boast a peak runtime of less than 1 hour on its 2000 lumens mode.


Power Source

Both the LED and the battery influence performance of a flashlight. The right battery choice may improve performance and lower the cost of running your flashlight. There is a broad range in battery performance, and many are rechargeable.


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The typical battery for regular flashlights.
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Used in flashlights are usually either AA or AAA, both of which are low-cost and readily available.


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Larger batteries are heavier, and light batons with comparable performance are becoming less popular as full-sized lights get smaller.


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CR123A lithium batteries are the best choice for tactical lights.
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They are roughly half the size of alkaline batteries and have double the voltage.


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Some rechargeable flashlights utilize proprietary battery packs, but some of these lights may also be used with traditional batteries.
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Rechargeable lights are popular among cops and experts because they help save hundreds of dollars by not using disposable batteries.

Nickel Cadmium Battery

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NiCd, Life: 1,000 cycles
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NiCd batteries have been on the market for many years. They are more durable but less energy dense than newer battery technologies.

Nickel Metal Hydride Battery

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NiMH, Life: 1,000+ cycles
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Heavier and more energy-dense.
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Providing longer run times than NiMH cells.
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Unless labeled as "low self-discharge," kept NiMH batteries must be recharged regularly to ensure that the light is operational.

Lithium-Ion battery

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Li-Ion, Life: 500 cycles
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Li-Ion batteries are smaller, lighter, and have a greater capacity than nickel-based and nickel metal hydride (NiCd) batteries, making them ideal for use in laptops and portable electronics.
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They may not be cycled as many times as nickel-based batteries.


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Life: 50,000 cycles
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Capacitors are a relatively recent addition to the world of rechargeable flashlights, and they come with several benefits and drawbacks.
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While they can be charged quickly and are light, they cannot store as much energy as traditional batteries and will discharge after a few weeks.
Size and weight of flashlight

Size and Weight of flashlight

The decision of which flashlight to buy depends on the intended use and the user's individual preferences.

A smaller, lighter led torch is often more comfortable to carry. Still, it may not have as long of a run time due to a smaller battery capacity. Conversely, a larger, heavier flashlight will likely have a longer run time. Still, it may be less comfortable to carry.

Tactical-sized flashlight (4″-6″)
These torches are small, lightweight, and usually switched on with a tail switch.

Mid-sized flashlight (6″-10″)
Many of these flashlights can be carried in a pocket or bag and feature a head and tail switch.

Full-sized led torch (10″+)
Torches with a comparable size to traditional flashlights are controlled using a head or housing switch.

Charging Time

The charge time for a flashlight can vary depending on the type of battery it uses. Choosing a flashlight with the right type of battery is vital for your needs.

Let's have a quick view of the charging time data for different flashlights:

80% = 2h, 100% = 3h 40min
Tactical flashlight, 18650 Li-ion 3300mAh

80% = 3 hours 35 min, 100% = 4 hours 55 min
EDC Flashlight, Li-ion 18650 3000 mAh with USB

80% = 3h, 100% = 4h 30min
Handheld light, Li-Po 2800 mAh with internal charging

1-3 hours
Average charging time from a rate of 0.5C to 1C for NiMH fast-charge rechargeable flashlight.

charging a flashlight

Charging Options for Rechargeable Flashlights

When choosing a charging option for your flashlight, there are various things to consider. The most important factor is compatibility; you'll need to ensure that your charger is compatible with your flashlight.

Charging Options for Rechargeable Flashlights

Once you've found a compatible charger, you'll need to decide whether you want a fast or a slow charger. Fast chargers will charge your flashlight in a shorter amount of time, but they may also reduce the lifespan of your battery. Slow chargers take longer to charge your flashlight, but they won't damage your battery.

You'll also need to decide whether you want an AC or a DC charger. AC chargers are more common, but they require an outlet to work. DC chargers are less common, but they can be used with any type of power source, including solar panels and car batteries. For example,

Cradle Charger
The flashlight can be recharged while stored in the cradle, which also serves as a place to keep or mount the light.

Battery Charge
Changing batteries allows you to be ready to use the flashlight immediately if a charged battery is accessible. Batteries must, however, be removed from the light before being charged.

Charging Power Source

  • 120V AC - Standard wall charger for North America
  • 12V DC - Vehicle Adapters: Car and Truck Tesla adapters are usually available as an option
  • 5V DC - USB charge for compact lights

Body Material/Finish

When choosing a body material/finish for your LED flashlight, there are a few factors to consider. The most important factor is probably the durability of the material. You want to ensure that your flashlight can withstand being dropped or bumped around without breaking. The weight of the material is another important aspect to take into account.

If you will be carrying your flashlight with you regularly, you don't want it to be too heavy. Finally, you also want to ensure the material won't scratch easily. A good body material/finish for an LED flashlight should be durable, lightweight, and scratch-resistant. More details for different materials we listed as below for your option:

Type III Anodized (Hard Anodized)
The most durable and costly aluminum finish for a flashlight.

Type II Anodize
It offers a thinner, less-durable finish than type III.

Polymer is light and long-lasting, making it ideal for chilly conditions. It's also lighter and more flexible than polyester.

Body Material/Finish
Flashlight lens

Lens/Window Material

When choosing a lens or window material for an LED flashlight, one essential consideration is the material's ability to resist heat. LEDs generate a lot of heat, and if the lens or window material cannot dissipate this heat, it can cause the material to warp or discolour.

In addition, the material should be transparent to allow light to pass through. Some materials typically used for lenses and windows in LED flashlights include glass, polycarbonate, and acrylic.

Anti-Reflective Coated Glass
The Anti-Reflective Coated Glass allows for the most excellent light transmission.

Borofloat Glass
High-temperature glass with high light transmission and good transparency.

Anti-Scratch Coated Polycarbonate
The unbreakable polycarbonate used in this model is scratch-resistant and unbreakable.

Scratches are typical on plastic slides, reducing output and introducing artifacts.


The switch button is one of a flashlight's most crucial components. This allows you to turn the flashlight on and off, and it can be located in different places depending on the model of flashlight.

Some flashlights will have a switch button that is located near the base of the flashlight, while others will have it near the top. The location of the switch button can be important for both practical and safety reasons.

For example, if you are using the flashlight in a dark area, you may want to keep your finger close to the switch button to quickly turn it off if necessary.

Alternatively, if you are using the flashlight in a wet area, you may want to keep the switch button away from water to prevent accidental activation.

Flashlight Switch
Water Resistant Flashlight

Water Resistance

One potential downside of LED flashlights is that they are not always water resistant. Using your flashlight in rainy conditions might be an issue since it could break or cease operating.

So to choose a suitable flashlight, you need to check the water resistance rating.

IPX4 - Water Resistant
The vast majority of flashlights are waterproof and can withstand a good deal of water splashing and spraying.

IPX7 - Waterproof
An IPX7-certified flashlight can withstand being submerged in water at 1m depth for 30 minutes.

IPX8 - Submersible
The flashlight with an IPX8 rating can be submerged to 2m depth for 30 minutes.

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